INTERNATIONAL SCORESHEET. To record sanctions: Put the corresponding abbreviation. (N° for player, C= Coach, AC1/AC2= Assistant Coaches,. T= Team . P.P. W.B. Class. S-F. Finals. BVB/11 - FIVB BEACH VOLLEYBALL INTERNATIONAL SCORESHEET RPS-2 out of 3 sets. Name of Competition: Edition. FIVB VB Scoresheet updated Time Hall Pool/Phase Match N° D M Y H: mn DE VOLLEYBALL .. Download pdf.
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Volleyball. Scoresheet. National Collegiate Athletic Association. Tourney. Date. Day Su M T W Th F Sa. Place. Time Match Scheduled.: AM PM. Division. 41, RALLY SCORING: Final Score, RALLY SCORING: Final Score. 42, MARK THE, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, MARK THE, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. Wt11 fivb beach volleyball international scoresheet rps2 out of 3 sets name of competition: edition match.: site: beach: or team vs. warn. pen.: player no.
Figure 4 - Team List 9 10 Trigrams are inserted in the Teams box. Players should always be entered in ascending shirt order number as this will assist in Line-up sheet and substitution checking.
The Game Captain s shirt number is circled if the Game Captain is not indicated on the team list then find out who it is from the 1 st referee or record after the Captain has signed the scoresheet. You should determine before completing the team list how many Liberos a team is playing and who they are. In FIVB and domestic competitions the Libero s are only entered in the Libero boxes thus leaving 2 or more blank lines in the Teams box.
For CEV controlled matches all players are listed with the Libero s also entered in the Libero box es. The Acting Libero is always entered on the first Libero line. Once this information is complete the scoresheet is ready for signature by the Captain and Coach of each team in the appropriate place. This serves two functions for the officials, it identifies the coach and captain of each team and also by signing the Coach is verifying that the team details as entered by the scorer are accurate.
Should the details be incorrect the coach should identify any alterations, deletions or additions for correction by the scorer before signing.
Once a team list is signed the team may make no further changes to it. The names of the first referee, second referee, scorer, assistant scorer and line judges are entered. In International matches the nationality of the officials, except the line judges is entered using the recognized trigram for the country ; in domestic games the licence numbers are entered. Line judges are numbered 1 to 4 anti-clockwise from the referee's stand and maintain the same position throughout the match.
There may be protests about facilities, equipment, or eligibility of players. At this point in the game it is likely that the first referee would make the entry or that the scorer would under the first referee's direction. There is the further possibility that some sanction might be given before the game. The procedure for this will also be explained later. This concludes the 1 st phase of scoring a game, and takes us on to the next stage After the toss for the first service.
After the Toss for 1 st Service Anything up to 30 minutes before the scheduled first service the first referee calls the two captains together to make a toss the time will vary depending on the match - in major events a published protocol itemises this. The choices made by the respective captains - service, court or reception are noted by the first referee and conveyed to the scorer.
The team starting on the Left Hand court will be team A and the other team B. After each team the letters S and R are to be found circled.
These represent Service and Reception respectively. The outcome of the toss is indicated by placing a cross on the letter corresponding to the team's choice, - if they are to receive put a cross on the R, if receiving cross the S. An X should be placed in the service round box 1 of the receiving team. At this time the scorer should not enter anything in the SET 4 or SET 5 boxes as the game may finish in straight sets.
Should SET 4 be played it will correspond to SET 2 above it, whilst the fifth set depends on the result of another toss being made. The scorer should obtain from each team coach the Line-up sheet for the first set. The Line-up sheet shows the players by their shirt numbers who will commence the set, and the position they will occupy on court.
Before entering the Line-up sheet, check that all the numbers correspond to those in the team's list; any discrepancy should be brought to the notice of the second referee before entering the detail. If there are no problems then they can be entered. Figure 9 - Line-up sheet 12 13 Whilst it is the 2 nd referees job to check the players are in the correct positions the scorer is also capable of doing this. Once the 1 st referee has called the players onto court the scorer can make a shadow check of the players.
Problems that may arise are as follows: The correct players are on court but not in the order given by the Coach on the Line-up sheet. The only option for the coach is to place the players in accordance with the Lineup sheet.
The players on the court do not correspond with the numbers on the Line-up sheet. This is resolved by either replacing the incorrect player s by the correct one s or by making a substitution in the position to retain the undeclared player s on court.
Any such substitutions prior to the start of a set are counted against those permitted to a team in each set. However, should the incorrect player not be on the team list i. This should only occur if a player has the wrong shirt on as you as the scorer will have checked the Line-up sheet against the Team List before entering them on the scoresheet.
Only when the 2 nd referee has verified the numbers of the starting six players may a coach bring on the player designated as the Libero and not before. We will consider this later. During the match Before the match starts the 2 nd referee will confirm that you are ready by looking for the 'Ready' signal from you raise both hands, palms towards the referee.
When the 1 st referee whistles for 1 st Service check the time and enter it in the start time at the top of the first set box. Figure 10 - Set 1 after LUS recorded Look at the Server; does the shirt number of the person with the ball correspond with the number under service order I column of the scoresheet. If it does not, wait until the service is made, i. Immediately attract the attention of the referee by using the buzzer or some other audible device and state "that is the wrong server'; advise the 2 nd referee who should have served and the correct player order on court.
This check must be made on each serve, as failure to pick up such rotational errors rapidly becomes very difficult to untangle if left undetected. These represent, for each position, up to eight opportunities to serve in a set When a player serves for the first time the scorer deletes the small number. This procedure is carried out as each new player in turn comes to serve.
If the team rotates through all six positions and the player who first served returns to position 1, then the Scorer moves to the small box containing a 2 and deletes that. This indicates the second service round has commenced. As with the first round, as each player makes service in the second round the number 2 is deleted, the 3 in the third round and so on until the set is decided. It is important to delete the service round number each time a player commences serving as it provides a ready check on who has served and who is serving.
It is done at the commencement of the serving round rather than at the end of the previous rally as the 1 st referee may decide to replay the point. Any points scored by the opening server are crossed through as they are won on the vertical points columns to the centre and right of each set block. Had the first server made no score then a 0 zero would have been entered in the space.
Figure 11 - Set 1 in progress Because the serving team has lost the rally a point is awarded to the opponents who also become the serving team. This point is immediately crossed through on their points column. This procedure of crossing through a point on the points column at the end of every rally and, if there is a change of service, entering the running total in the service round box of the player who has just lost service; or, deleting the small number in the service round box of the next server of the team that has commenced service, continues until a winning total is reached.
As a check, the score entered in the service round box must always be greater than the one preceding it. Remember that for the first four sets this is the team that reaches 25 points with a two clear point advantage Thus: 25 : 23 or less, then 26 : 24, 27 : 25 etc. There is no upper limit. In the event that you run out of Service Rounds Boxes or Points, then the score would be continued on a separate sheet of paper which would then be attached to the scoresheet with a suitable comment in the Remarks area.
This should be circled along with the last service round score for the losing team. Where a team wins a set as a result of an opponent's error the score is placed in the next service round box but the box number is not deleted. On the running total points column the last deleted number should be underlined and all the numbers below this line scored through. The underlined numbers should correspond to the circled numbers in the service round boxes.
Immediately the decisive point is won the time is recorded in the 'end time' box. Figure 12 - Set 1 finished You should also enter the set details in the 'results' box bottom centre of the scoresheet, at the end of each set. Do not write the finishing score for each team in the substitutions area. Note that all boxes have an entry. There is no need to put the words 'mins' next to the set duration. The Assistant Scorer Where there is a Technical Delegate or Game Jury President details of the set start, end and duration, plus any other detail they request, are passed in written format at the end of each set.
Time out TO rule They each last for thirty seconds, and during these the team must stand in the free zone in front of their team bench. Teams usually take time-outs singly but it is quite legal, but not usual, to take them consecutively.
On each occasion that the 2 nd Referee authorises a time out it must be recorded on the scoresheet. The 2 nd referee should indicate by the formation of his TO signal the hand forming the upright indicates which team and he will also usually indicate a s well which team has called it. Indicate with one raised hand if this is a legal request. If the request is not legal, i.
The team will be sanctioned with for an 'improper request'. Recording this will be covered later. In each set box beneath the 'points' column for each team is found two small squares with Time- Outs' printed above them. Each square has a colon : dividing it.
On the first occasion that a team requests a TO the current score is entered in the upper of the squares. The score of the requesting side to the left of the colon and that of their opponents to the right. It is most important that the score information is taken from the points column of each team and not by reference to visual scoreboards thus in the example the side requesting the TO has one point and their opponents six. When a team asks for their second TO it is recorded below this first one.
The timing of the TO is the responsibility of the 2 nd referee. At the end of the TO the 2 nd referee must confirm that you are ready by getting the 'Ready' signal from you.
Technical Timeouts At major matches Technical Time-outs are used in each set. They are only taken in sets 1 4 at the first time either team reaches 8 points and again at 16 points.
They last 1 minute and are not recorded on the scoresheet. The timing of them is undertaken by the Assistant Scorer and the start and end is indicated by a buzzer and the Assistant scorer saying "Start End of Technical Time Out". At the end of the TTO you must give the 'Ready' signal to the 2 nd referee. However as Libero replacements may only take place during play the Assistant Scorer must also make the 2 nd Referee aware of any Libero replacement that might take place during the TTO or TO.
Other match delays Occasionally the 1 st referee will blow his whistle and indicate he is stopping the game to resolve some problem. He may also indicate that the teams may leave the court if he feels the stoppage may be lengthy.
Although this looks like a TO it should not be recorded as such, however as scorer you should be alert to the fact that this may be the start of a prolonged game interruption rule , and you are required you to make an entry in the Remarks box. These are covered in detail later. If you are not sure about any decision or procedure, enlist the help of the 2 nd referee and do not let the 1 st referee rush you in your work.
A good 1st referee will wait your acknowledgement that you are ready. Where more than one substitute is requested it should be clear how many substitutions is being requested rule either by their arrival in the substitution zone between 3m line and centre line or by a hand signal from the Coach or Captain. Failure to do this will result in only one substitution being allowed. Against each of the six positions on court it is possible to make two substitutions providing that in total these do not exceed six per team per set.
Thus anyone of the starting six players may be replaced by a substitute from the bench, that being the first substitution on that position, subsequently the substitute player may in turn be replaced by the original player - the second and final legal substitution on that position Rule and. Scorers must understand that once a player or their substitute has been played in a particular court position they may not legally play in any other court position in that set.
Has not been on court in another position earlier in the set. Is the correct returning player for a substitute being substituted. And is not expelled or disqualified. With Buzzer and Paddles Quick Sub As soon as the player s appears in the substitution zone carrying a paddle s showing the number of the player they are to replace, the scorer presses the buzzer and records the substitution s.
When there are multiple substitutions then the 'Ready' signal is given when the recording is complete to indicate that the next substitution can take place.
On the completion of all substitutions the 'Ready' signal is given. It should only last the time needed for recording the substitution on the scoresheet and for allowing the entry and exit of the players.
Be aware that both teams might ask for simultaneous substitutions. In this situation you must make clear to the 2 nd referee which team's substitution you are dealing with first by indicating them with an appropriate hand signal. If having pressed the buzzer the scorer finds the request to be illegal, then the buzzer is pressed again and the scorer states "that request is not legal".
You must call the 2 nd referee to the table to explain why the team will be awarded a delay sanction. The substitute s arrive in the substitution zone carrying the paddle s as above. You raise a hand to indicate the request is legal, lower the hand and record the substitution s and then raise both hands to indicate you are ready.
If the substitution is not legal you must call the 2 nd referee to the table to explain why the team will be awarded an improper request or a delay sanction. No Buzzer No Paddles As above; except you have to wait for the player s coming off to come to the sideline to check the legality of the substitution. You are recording the details of who is replacing whom and the score when it occurred. Locate the rows against the substitutes section noting they have an upper line N o of player and two lower lines Score at change.
Enter the sub's number on the N o of player line and the score on the upper of the two Score at change lines: enter the score in the same way as for TO that is - requesting side to the left, opponents to the right - remember - take the points from the points column.
Figure 15 Recording Substitutions Where the coach wishes to return the starting player to the court the change is recorded as follows. The substituted player's number is located in the player no line and beneath the score entered when s he came on, i. Additionally the number of the player leaving is circled indicating that they may not legally return in that set.
Figure 16 Substitution: player returning to court Should the coach request two or more substitutions the procedure is merely duplicated with the same score being entered against each pairing. Where such multiple substitutions are requested the scorer should quickly check that they are legally possible.
Will the number of subs requested take the teams total over the permitted six for the set? A quick tally can be made by adding the number of Score at change boxes filled. Where a team has used four subs you may, five subs you should, and six subs you must inform the officials rule. Figure 17 Two subs 19 20 The act of substitution should disrupt the game as little as possible, however, as with any game delay, do not sacrifice accuracy to speed or allow yourself to be railroaded by the officials.
Possible problem situations at substitution Sometimes both teams request a substitution at the same time. It is very easy as scorer to be so involved in the one team's substitution that you miss the other one and suddenly find an unaccounted for player on the court. At multiple substitutions where there are no paddles, the pairings of the players to be exchanged may well get muddled. In such instances never guess, but have the pairings clarified by the 2 nd referee.
However a good Assistant Scorer will assist by calling out the shirt numbers for you. Non-standard substitutions The substitutions so far described are what are within limits defined under rule There are however three circumstances where a team has no option but to replace a player whether it wishes to or not. They are: A player is expelled for a set. A player is disqualified for the match rule.
A player is injured rule 8. Let us consider the first two: The first referee indicates the exclusion of a player by holding up the red card, and for a disqualification the red and yellow cards are held jointly; the offending player must leave the court or playing area respectively thus reducing their team to five players which the rules do not permit rule 7.
While a team is allowed to replace the players at fault they may only do so legally. If a legal substitution cannot be made then the team becomes incomplete and forfeits the set or the match. This will depend on the circumstances of the dismissal and what substitutes are available rule 8. The scorer must therefore check the following: Has the team already had their six permitted substitutions? If yes, they must forfeit, if not a legal substitution may be possible depending on the next check.
Have there been any substitutions on the excluded player's position? If not then a previously unused substitute can be used to replace the excluded player; this would be recorded as for any legal substitution. If only one change has been made then the original starting player may return quite legally and would be recorded as for any change. Where both substitutions on a position have already been used then a legal substitution is impossible and the team would be deemed incomplete and forfeit as above.
The options are different when injury is involved When a player is injured and the game is stopped an immediate substitution should be made. In practice referees use their discretion 20 21 indicating substitution only when a player may be safely moved or is obviously not going to recover quickly.
Once it is clear that the injured player will have to be replaced the team must initially make a legal substitution. Where no substitution on the position has been made an unused substitute should be used, or if one substitution has been made on the position then the original player must be returned. Should a team be unable to replace an injured player legally then an exceptional substitution 8.
Underhand serves are considered very easy to receive and are rarely employed in high-level competitions. Sky ball serve: a specific type of underhand serve occasionally used in beach volleyball , where the ball is hit so high it comes down almost in a straight line. This serve was invented and employed almost exclusively by the Brazilian team in the early s and is now considered outdated. During the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro , however, the sky ball serve was extensively played by Italian beach volleyball player Adrian Carambula.
In Brazil, this serve is called Jornada nas Estrelas Star Trek Topspin: an overhand serve where the player tosses the ball high and hits it with a wrist snap, giving it topspin which causes it to drop faster than it would otherwise and helps maintain a straight flight path.
Topspin serves are generally hit hard and aimed at a specific returner or part of the court. Standing topspin serves are rarely used above the high school level of play. Float: an overhand serve where the ball is hit with no spin so that its path becomes unpredictable, akin to a knuckleball in baseball. Jump serve: an overhand serve where the ball is first tossed high in the air, then the player makes a timed approach and jumps to make contact with the ball, hitting it with much pace and topspin.
This is the most popular serve among college and professional teams. Jump float: an overhand serve where the ball is tossed high enough that the player may jump before hitting it similarly to a standing float serve. The ball is tossed lower than a topspin jump serve, but contact is still made while in the air. This serve is becoming more popular among college and professional players because it has a certain unpredictability in its flight pattern.
It is the only serve where the server's feet can go over the inline. Pass A player making a forearm pass or bump Also called reception, the pass is the attempt by a team to properly handle the opponent's serve, or any form of attack. Proper handling includes not only preventing the ball from touching the court, but also making it reach the position where the setter is standing quickly and precisely. Set Jump set The set is usually the second contact that a team makes with the ball.
As with passing, one may distinguish between an overhand and a bump set. Since the former allows for more control over the speed and direction of the ball, the bump is used only when the ball is so low it cannot be properly handled with fingertips, or in beach volleyball where rules regulating overhand setting are more stringent. In the case of a set, one also speaks of a front or back set, meaning whether the ball is passed in the direction the setter is facing or behind the setter.
There is also a jump set that is used when the ball is too close to the net. In this case the setter usually jumps off their right foot straight up to avoid going into the net. Sometimes a setter refrains from raising the ball for a teammate to perform an attack and tries to play it directly onto the opponent's court. This movement is called a "dump".
The most common dumps are to 'throw' the ball behind the setter or in front of the setter to zones 2 and 4. More experienced setters toss the ball into the deep corners or spike the ball on the second hit. Attack See also: Volleyball Offensive Systems A Spanish player , 18 in red outfit, about to spike towards the Portuguese field, whose players try to block the way The attack, also known as the spike, is usually the third contact a team makes with the ball.
Ideally the contact with the ball is made at the apex of the hitter's jump. At the moment of contact, the hitter's arm is fully extended above their head and slightly forward, making the highest possible contact while maintaining the ability to deliver a powerful hit. The hitter uses arm swing, wrist snap, and a rapid forward contraction of the entire body to drive the ball.
A "kill" is the slang term for an attack that is not returned by the other team thus resulting in a point. The player must jump from behind the 3-meter line before making contact with the ball, but may land in front of the 3-meter line. Line and Cross-court Shot: refers to whether the ball flies in a straight trajectory parallel to the side lines, or crosses through the court in an angle. A cross-court shot with a very pronounced angle, resulting in the ball landing near the 3-meter line, is called a cut shot.
Off-speed hit: the player does not hit the ball hard, reducing its speed and thus confusing the opponent's defense. The set called a "quick set" is placed only slightly above the net and the ball is struck by the hitter almost immediately after leaving the setter's hands.
Quick attacks are often effective because they isolate the middle blocker to be the only blocker on the hit. Slide: a variation of the quick hit that uses a low back set.
The middle hitter steps around the setter and hits from behind him or her. It can be used to deceive opposite blockers and free a fourth hitter attacking from back-court, maybe without block at all. Block Three players performing a block a. A well-executed offensive block is performed by jumping and reaching to penetrate with one's arms and hands over the net and into the opponent's area.
The jump should be timed so as to intercept the ball's trajectory prior to it crossing over the net. Palms are held deflected downward roughly 45—60 degrees toward the interior of the opponents court.
A "roof" is a spectacular offensive block that redirects the power and speed of the attack straight down to the attacker's floor, as if the attacker hit the ball into the underside of a peaked house roof. By contrast, it is called a defensive, or "soft" block if the goal is to control and deflect the hard-driven ball up so that it slows down and becomes easier to defend.
A well-executed soft-block is performed by jumping and placing one's hands above the net with no penetration into the opponent's court and with the palms up and fingers pointing backward. Blocking is also classified according to the number of players involved.
Thus, one may speak of single or solo , double, or triple block. While it's obvious that a block was a success when the attacker is roofed, a block that consistently forces the attacker away from their 'power' or preferred attack into a more easily controlled shot by the defense is also a highly successful block. At the same time, the block position influences the positions where other defenders place themselves while opponent hitters are spiking.
Dig Player going for a dig Digging is the ability to prevent the ball from touching one's court after a spike or attack, particularly a ball that is nearly touching the ground. It is especially important while digging for players to stay on their toes; several players choose to employ a split step to make sure they're ready to move in any direction. Some specific techniques are more common in digging than in passing. A player may sometimes perform a "dive", i.
When the player also slides their hand under a ball that is almost touching the court, this is called a "pancake". The pancake is frequently used in indoor volleyball, but rarely if ever in beach volleyball because the uneven and yielding nature of the sand court limits the chances that the ball will make a good, clean contact with the hand.
When used correctly, it is one of the more spectacular defensive volleyball plays. Sometimes a player may also be forced to drop their body quickly to the floor to save the ball. In this situation, the player makes use of a specific rolling technique to minimize the chances of injuries.
Team play U. These team movements are determined by the teams chosen serve receive system, offensive system, coverage system, and defensive system. The serve-receive system is the formation used by the receiving team to attempt to pass the ball to the designated setter. Systems can consist of 5 receivers, 4 receivers, 3 receivers, and in some cases 2 receivers. The most popular formation at higher levels is a 3 receiver formation consisting of two left sides and a libero receiving every rotation.
This allows middles and right sides to become more specialized at hitting and blocking. Offensive systems are the formations used by the offense to attempt to ground the ball into the opposing court or otherwise score points.
Formations often include designated player positions with skill specialization see Player specialization , below. Popular formations include the , , and systems see Formations , below. There are also several different attacking schemes teams can use to keep the opposing defense off balance. Coverage systems are the formations used by the offense to protect their court in the case of a blocked attack.
Executed by the 5 offensive players not directly attacking the ball, players move to assigned positions around the attacker to dig up any ball that deflects off the block back into their own court. Popular formations include the system and the system.
In lieu of a system, some teams just use a random coverage with the players nearest the hitter. Defensive systems are the formations used by the defense to protect against the ball being grounded into their court by the opposing team.
The system will outline which players are responsible for which areas of the court depending on where the opposing team is attacking from. There are also several different blocking schemes teams can employ to disrupt the opposing teams offense. When one player is ready to serve, some teams will line up their other five players in a screen to obscure the view of the receiving team.
This action is only illegal if the server makes use of the screen, so the call is made at the referee's discretion as to the impact the screen made on the receiving team's ability to pass the ball. The most common style of screening involves a W formation designed to take up as much horizontal space as possible. Coaching Basic Coaching for volleyball can be classified under two main categories: match coaching and developmental coaching. The objective of match coaching is to win a match by managing a team's strategy.
Developmental coaching emphasizes player development through the reinforcement of basic skills during exercises known as " drills. A coach will construct drills that simulate match situations thereby encouraging speed of movement, anticipation, timing, communication, and team-work.
At the various stages of a player's career, a coach will tailor drills to meet the strategic requirements of the team.
The American Volleyball Coaches Association is the largest organization in the world dedicated exclusively to volleyball coaching. Strategy An image from an international match between Italy and Russia in A Russian player on the left has just served, with three men of his team next to the net moving to their assigned block positions from the starting ones.
Two others, in the back-row positions, are preparing for defense. Italy, on the right, has three men in a line, each preparing to pass if the ball reaches him.
The setter is waiting for their pass while the middle hitter with no. Alessandro Fei no. Note the two liberos with different color dress. Player specialization There are 5 positions filled on every volleyball team at the elite level.
Each of these positions plays a specific, key role in winning a volleyball match. Setters have the task for orchestrating the offense of the team. They aim for second touch and their main responsibility is to place the ball in the air where the attackers can place the ball into the opponents' court for a point. They have to be able to operate with the hitters, manage the tempo of their side of the court and choose the right attackers to set. Setters need to have swift and skillful appraisal and tactical accuracy, and must be quick at moving around the court.
Liberos are defensive players who are responsible for receiving the attack or serve. They are usually the players on the court with the quickest reaction time and best passing skills. Libero means 'free' in Italian —they receive this name as they have the ability to substitute for any other player on the court during each play.
They do not necessarily need to be tall, as they never play at the net, which allows shorter players with strong passing and defensive skills to excel in the position and play an important role in the team's success. A player designated as a libero for a match may not play other roles during that match.
Liberos wear a different color jersey than their teammates. Middle blockers or Middle hitters are players that can perform very fast attacks that usually take place near the setter. They are specialized in blocking, since they must attempt to stop equally fast plays from their opponents and then quickly set up a double block at the sides of the court.
In non-beginners play, every team will have two middle hitters. Outside hitters or Left side hitters attack from near the left antenna. The outside hitter is usually the most consistent hitter on the team and gets the most sets. Inaccurate first passes usually result in a set to the outside hitter rather than middle or opposite.
Since most sets to the outside are high, the outside hitter may take a longer approach, always starting from outside the court sideline. In non-beginners play, there are again two outside hitters on every team in every match.
Opposite hitters or Right-side hitters carry the defensive workload for a volleyball team in the front row. Their primary responsibilities are to put up a well formed block against the opponents' Outside Hitters and serve as a backup setter. Sets to the opposite usually go to the right side of the antennae. At some levels where substitutions are unlimited, teams will make use of a Defensive Specialist in place of or in addition to a Libero.
This position does not have unique rules like the libero position, instead, these players are used to substitute out a poor back row defender using regular substitution rules.